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What makes a woman? Understanding the reasons for and circumstances of female genital mutilation/cutting in Indonesia, Ethiopia and Kenya

T Kakal, I Hidayana, A Berhanu Kassegne, T Gitau, M Kok, A van der Kwaak

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or Female Circumcision, includes any partial or total excision of the external female genitalia for non-medical/non-therapeutic purposes. This study presents findings from three case study investigations unpacking the reasons for and circumstances of FGM/C and their social meaning within the Sundanese and Sasak communities in Indonesia, the Amhara community in Ethiopia, and the Maasai community in Kenya.

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