A range of current policies and programs target greater inclusion of the poor and marginalized–including women–in financial systems and services. Debate and effort have largely focused on widening access to products and services for these groups. But little is known about whether and how such efforts may be benefiting women, and whether improving access alone is sufficient to transform the underlying social and economic structures that constrain women’s livelihood and business success. This scoping paper explores available evidence on how ‘gender-transformative’ approaches can be integrated with financial inclusion efforts to empower women in the economy. It points to current knowledge gaps, and suggests areas for further research to deepen our understanding and inform policy and practice in this area.