The WHO has approved a post-2015 Global End Tuberculosis Strategy for tuberculosis (TB) 50 prevention, care and control. Countries need to respond by adapting and enhancing their TB control activities. Justifying investment in effective TB control strategies in a country can be achieved in part by defining and monitoring the (MDR) TB epidemic to identify appropriate interventions.
Molecular tools can positively impact on earlier detection of Mtb and identification of drug resistance. Genotyping of Mtb isolates has revealed associations between drug resistance and Mtb lineage, identified routes of transmission and described the dynamics of epidemic clones. Further developments in multiplex assays as well as the expanded use of next generation sequencing assays will increasingly allow Mtb strains to be simultaneously screened for resistance associated mutations and the bacterial lineage they represent.