Risk factors for participation restriction in leprosy and development of a screening tool to identify individuals at risk


P. G. Nicholls, Z. Bakirtzief, W.H. van Brakel, R. K. Das-Pattanaya, M. S. Raju, G. Norman, R. K. Mutatkar

The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health defines participation as involvement in a life situation. Participation restrictions may occur in any life situation across nine areas of activity and participation. These are learning and applying knowledge, general tasks and demands, communication, mobility, self-care, domestic life, inter-personal interactions and relationships, major life areas and community, social and civic life. In the context of leprosy, participation restrictions are recognised as the outworking of the stigmatizing attitudes with which the disease has been associated for generations and the felt stigma or self-stigmatization with which those affected respond.