What does empowerment of women and girls mean? The White Paper that was developed as the first component of this project sought to address this question. A conceptual model on empowerment of women and girls was developed in close partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The model aims to provide conceptual clarity and a common language on what empowerment of women and girls means for the foundation. The White Paper defines empowerment of women and girls as ‘the expansion of choice and strengthening of voice through the transformation of power relations, so women and girls have more control over their lives and futures. It is both a process and an outcome’.